优化饮食可提高预期寿命!越早开始获益越多!
  • 本研究根据开发的Food4HealthyLife计算器估计,年轻人从典型的西式饮食转变为优化饮食(介于最佳饮食与典型的西式饮食)并长期坚持,预期寿命的增加可以超过10年;
  • 吃更多的豆类、蔬菜、全谷物和坚果,少吃红肉和加工肉,可以获得最大的预期寿命收益;
  • 对于老年人来说,优化饮食的预期寿命收益虽然相比年轻人较小,但也是可观的,在各老年组中,采纳优化饮食的男女的预期寿命都增加了7%或更多。
主编推荐语
注册营养师陈彬林
近期发表于PLoS Medicine的一项研究利用基于荟萃分析、全球疾病负担研究的数据和寿命表开发的Food4HealthyLife计算器预测持续的饮食变化可使所有年龄段的人获得显著的健康收益,在生活中,越早开始改变饮食习惯,预期获得的益处就越大。研究人员在线提供的Food4HealthyLife计算器(https://food4healthylife.org/)可以帮助临床医生、政策制定者和普通人了解饮食选择对健康的影响。
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PLoS Medicine [IF:11.613]

Estimating impact of food choices on life expectancy: A modeling study

估算食物选择对预期寿命的影响:一项建模研究

10.1371/journal.pmed.1003889

02-08, Article

Abstract & Authors:展开

Abstract:收起
BACKGROUND: Interpreting and utilizing the findings of nutritional research can be challenging to clinicians, policy makers, and even researchers. To make better decisions about diet, innovative methods that integrate best evidence are needed. We have developed a decision support model that predicts how dietary choices affect life expectancy (LE).
METHODS AND FINDINGS: Based on meta-analyses and data from the Global Burden of Disease study (2019), we used life table methodology to estimate how LE changes with sustained changes in the intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, refined grains, nuts, legumes, fish, eggs, milk/dairy, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages. We present estimates (with 95% uncertainty intervals [95% UIs]) for an optimized diet and a feasibility approach diet. An optimal diet had substantially higher intake than a typical diet of whole grains, legumes, fish, fruits, vegetables, and included a handful of nuts, while reducing red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and refined grains. A feasibility approach diet was a midpoint between an optimal and a typical Western diet. A sustained change from a typical Western diet to the optimal diet from age 20 years would increase LE by more than a decade for women from the United States (10.7 [95% UI 8.4 to 12.3] years) and men (13.0 [95% UI 9.4 to 14.3] years). The largest gains would be made by eating more legumes (females: 2.2 [95% UI 1.1 to 3.4]; males: 2.5 [95% UI 1.1 to 3.9]), whole grains (females: 2.0 [95% UI 1.3 to 2.7]; males: 2.3 [95% UI 1.6 to 3.0]), and nuts (females: 1.7 [95% UI 1.5 to 2.0]; males: 2.0 [95% UI 1.7 to 2.3]), and less red meat (females: 1.6 [95% UI 1.5 to 1.8]; males: 1.9 [95% UI 1.7 to 2.1]) and processed meat (females: 1.6 [95% UI 1.5 to 1.8]; males: 1.9 [95% UI 1.7 to 2.1]). Changing from a typical diet to the optimized diet at age 60 years would increase LE by 8.0 (95% UI 6.2 to 9.3) years for women and 8.8 (95% UI 6.8 to 10.0) years for men, and 80-year-olds would gain 3.4 years (95% UI females: 2.6 to 3.8/males: 2.7 to 3.9). Change from typical to feasibility approach diet would increase LE by 6.2 (95% UI 3.5 to 8.1) years for 20-year-old women from the United States and 7.3 (95% UI 4.7 to 9.5) years for men. Using NutriGrade, the overall quality of evidence was assessed as moderate. The methodology provides population estimates under given assumptions and is not meant as individualized forecasting, with study limitations that include uncertainty for time to achieve full effects, the effect of eggs, white meat, and oils, individual variation in protective and risk factors, uncertainties for future development of medical treatments; and changes in lifestyle.
CONCLUSIONS: A sustained dietary change may give substantial health gains for people of all ages both for optimized and feasible changes. Gains are predicted to be larger the earlier the dietary changes are initiated in life. The Food4HealthyLife calculator that we provide online could be useful for clinicians, policy makers, and laypeople to understand the health impact of dietary choices.

First Authors:
Lars T Fadnes

Correspondence Authors:
Lars T Fadnes

All Authors:
Lars T Fadnes,Jan-Magnus Økland,Øystein A Haaland,Kjell Arne Johansson

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