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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with expectations that AMR-associated consequences will continue to worsen throughout the coming decades. Since resistance to antibiotics is encoded in the microbiome, interventions aimed at altering the taxonomic composition of the gut might allow us to prophylactically engineer microbiomes that harbor fewer antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs). Diet is one method of intervention, and yet little is known about the association between diet and antimicrobial resistance. To address this knowledge gap, we examined diet using the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ; habitual diet) and 24-h dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-h [ASA24®] tool) coupled with an analysis of the microbiome using shotgun metagenome sequencing in 290 healthy adult participants of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Nutritional Phenotyping Study. We found that aminoglycosides were the most abundant and prevalent mechanism of AMR in these healthy adults and that aminoglycoside-O-phosphotransferases (aph3-dprime) correlated negatively with total calories and soluble fiber intake. Individuals in the lowest quartile of ARGs (low-ARG) consumed significantly more fiber in their diets than medium- and high-ARG individuals, which was concomitant with increased abundances of obligate anaerobes, especially from the family Clostridiaceae, in their gut microbiota. Finally, we applied machine learning to examine 387 dietary, physiological, and lifestyle features for associations with antimicrobial resistance, finding that increased phylogenetic diversity of diet was associated with low-ARG individuals. These data suggest diet may be a potential method for reducing the burden of AMR.
Danielle G Lemay
Andrew Oliver,Zhengyao Xue,Yirui T Villanueva,Blythe Durbin-Johnson,Zeynep Alkan,Diana H Taft,Jinxin Liu,Ian Korf,Kevin D Laugero,Charles B Stephensen,David A Mills,Mary E Kable,Danielle G Lemay