Science:动物养殖中不容乐观的抗生素耐药性
  • 纳入901项调查研究,分析中低收入国家动物养殖中常见致病菌(大肠杆菌、弯曲菌、非伤寒沙门氏菌和金黄葡萄球菌)的抗生素耐药性情况;
  • 中国和印度是耐药性的最大热点地区,巴西和肯尼亚是新热点地区;
  • 2000年到2018年,鸡、猪和牛中,致病菌耐药性高于50%的比例增长分别为0.15-0.41、0.13-0.34和0.12-0.23;
  • 动物生产中最常用的四环素、磺胺类和青霉素的耐药率最高;
  • 动物中的抗生素耐药性增强,将威胁动物甚至人类健康。
主编推荐语
mildbreeze
随着全球肉食消费增长,动物养殖业的抗生素使用也在不断攀升。目前全球约73%的抗生素是用于动物养殖,但由此导致的致病菌抗生素耐药情况尚不清楚。Science近期发表一项系统性研究,绘制了过去近20年间发展中国家的动物养殖抗生素耐药性热点地图,我国属于“重灾区”。此外,在鸡和猪中,耐药菌几乎增加了两倍。如果不采取措施,动物养殖中可用的有效抗生素将越来越少,最终也将威胁人类健康。
关键字
延伸阅读本研究的原文信息和链接出处,以及相关解读和评论文章。欢迎读者朋友们推荐!
图片
Science [IF:63.714]

Global trends in antimicrobial resistance in animals in low- and middle-income countries

在低等和中等收入国家中,动物体内细菌耐药性的全球趋势

10.1126/science.aaw1944

2019-09-20, Article

Abstract & Authors:展开

Abstract:收起
INTRODUCTION: The global scale-up in demand for animal protein is the most notable dietary trend of our time. Since 2000, meat production has plateaued in high-income countries but has grown by 68%, 64%, and 40% in Asia, Africa, and South America, respectively. The transition to high-protein diets in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has been facilitated by the global expansion of intensive animal production systems in which antimicrobials are used routinely to maintain health and productivity. Globally, 73% of all antimicrobials sold on Earth are used in animals raised for food. A growing body of evidence has linked this practice with the rise of antimicrobial-resistant infections, not just in animals but also in humans. Beyond potentially serious consequences for public health, the reliance on antimicrobials to meet demand for animal protein is a likely threat to the sustainability of the livestock industry, and thus to the livelihood of farmers around the world.
RATIONALE: In LMICs, trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals are poorly documented. In the absence of systematic surveillance systems, point prevalence surveys represent a largely untapped source of information to map trends in AMR in animals. We use geospatial models to produce global maps of AMR in LMICs and give policy-makers—or a future international panel—a baseline for monitoring AMR levels in animals and target interventions in the regions most affected by the rise of resistance.
RESULTS: We identified 901 point prevalence surveys from LMICs reporting AMR rates in animals for common indicator pathogens: Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus. From 2000 to 2018, the proportion of antimicrobial compounds with resistance higher than 50% (P50) increased from 0.15 to 0.41 in chickens and from 0.13 to 0.34 in pigs and plateaued between 0.12 and 0.23 in cattle. Global maps of AMR (available at resistancebank.org) show hotspots of resistance in northeastern India, northeastern China, northern Pakistan, Iran, eastern Turkey, the south coast of Brazil, Egypt, the Red River delta in Vietnam, and the areas surrounding Mexico City and Johannesburg. Areas where resistance is just starting to emerge are Kenya, Morocco, Uruguay, southern Brazil, central India, and southern China. Uncertainty in our predictions was greatest in the Andes, the Amazon region, West and Central Africa, the Tibetan plateau, Myanmar, and Indonesia. Dense geographical coverage of point prevalence surveys did not systematically correlate with the presence of hotspots of AMR, such as in Ethiopia, Thailand, Chhattisgarh (India), and Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The highest resistance rates were observed with the most commonly used classes of antimicrobials in animal production: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and penicillins.
CONCLUSION: The portfolio of antimicrobials used to raise animals for food is rapidly getting depleted, with important consequences for animal health, farmers’ livelihoods, and potentially for human health. Regions affected by the highest levels of AMR should take immediate actions to preserve the efficacy of antimicrobials that are essential in human medicine by restricting their use in animal production. In some middle-income countries, particularly in South America, surveillance must be scaled up to match that of low-income African countries that are currently outperforming them despite more limited resources. Policy-makers coordinating the international response to AMR may consider sparing African countries from the most aggressive measures to restrict access to veterinary drugs, which may undermine livestock-based economic development and rightfully be perceived as unfair. However, in regions where resistance is starting to emerge, there is a window of opportunity to limit the rise of resistance by encouraging a transition to sustainable animal farming practices. High-income countries, where antimicrobials have been used on farms since the 1950s, should support this transition—for example, through a global fund to subsidize improvement in farm-level biosafety and biosecurity.

First Authors:
Thomas P Van Boeckel

Correspondence Authors:
Ramanan Laxminarayan

All Authors:
Thomas P Van Boeckel,João Pires,Reshma Silvester,Cheng Zhao,Julia Song,Nicola G Criscuolo,Marius Gilbert,Sebastian Bonhoeffer,Ramanan Laxminarayan

图片
Science期刊

Changes in antibiotic resistance in animals

Catrin E. Moore,2019-09-20

点评:Science同期配发的解读文章。

评论