硝酸盐摄入或提高成人运动表现
  • 纳入123项研究的1705名参与者数据进行荟萃分析,以确定硝酸盐摄入对运动表现的影响;
  • 硝酸盐摄入可提高运动成绩,甜菜根汁和高硝酸盐饮食效果优于硝酸盐补充剂;
  • 口腔菌群多样性会影响硝酸盐作用,对口腔菌群有害的措施降低硝酸盐效价;
  • 硝酸盐摄入在持续2-10分钟的运动中最有效,在逐渐缺氧的条件效果更佳;
  • 急性给药有剂量-反应关系,最有效的急性剂量是在运动前150分钟摄入5-14.9mmol,而以此剂量摄入超2天出现反剂量反应关系。
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Johnson
这是发表在Advances in Nutrition的一份工作,作者进行了荟萃分析以探究硝酸盐摄入对运动表现的影响。有趣的是,硝酸盐摄入确实可以提高运动表现能力,其中富含硝酸盐的甜菜根汁补充和高硝酸盐饮食效果较优,摄入硝酸盐补充剂效果较小。硝酸盐效果与口腔菌群多样性呈反比,与缺氧条件成正比,在2-10分钟的运动中效果最好。但要注意的是,硝酸盐对运动表现的提高效果仍然比较小,且存在其他影响因素,包括运动条件(时间、环境和类型)、摄入策略(剂量、时间和来源),人口特征以及口腔菌群多样性。
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Factors that Moderate the Effect of Nitrate Ingestion On Exercise Performance in Adults: A Systematic Review With Meta-Analyses and Meta-Regressions

调节硝酸盐摄入对成人运动表现影响的因素:一个荟萃分析和荟萃回归的系统综述

10.1093/advances/nmac054

05-17, Article

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To identify how variables such as exercise condition, supplementation strategy, participant characteristics and demographics, and practices that control oral microbiota diversity could modify the effect of inorganic nitrate ingestion (as nitrate salt supplements, beetroot juice, and nitrate-rich vegetables) on exercise performance, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis. Studies were identified in PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Eligibility criteria included randomized controlled trials assessing inorganic nitrate on exercise performance in healthy adults. To assess the variation in effect size, we used meta-regression models for continuous variables and subgroup analysis for categorical variables. One hundred and twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis totaling 1705 participants. Nitrate was effective for improving exercise performance (Standardized Mean Difference (SMD):0.101; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI):0.051,0.151, P < 0.001, I2 = 0%), although nitrate salts supplementation was not as effective (P = 0.629) as ingestion via beetroot juice (P < 0.001) or a high nitrate diet (P = 0.005). Practices that control oral microbiota diversity influenced the nitrate effect, with practices harmful to oral bacteria decreasing the ergogenic effect of nitrate. Nitrate ingestion was most effective for exercise lasting between 2 and 10min (P < 0.001). An inverse dose-response relationship between the fraction of inspired oxygen and the effect size (coefficient: -0.045;95%CI: -0.085, -0.005, P = 0.028) suggests that nitrate was more effective in increasingly hypoxic conditions. There was a dose-response relation for acute administration (P = 0.049). The most effective acute dose was between 5–14.9mmol provided ≥150min prior to exercise (P < 0.001). An inverse dose-response for protocols ≥ 2days was observed (P = 0.025), with the optimal dose between 5–9.9mmol∙day−1 (P < 0.001). Nitrate, via beetroot juice or a high nitrate diet, improved exercise performance, particular those lasting between 2–10min. Ingestion of 5–14.9mmol⋅day−1 taken at least 150min prior to exercise appears optimal for performance gains, while athletes should be aware that practices which control oral microbiota diversity may decrease the effect of nitrate.

First Authors:
Kaio Vinicius C Silva

Correspondence Authors:
João Felipe Mota

All Authors:
Kaio Vinicius C Silva,Breno Duarte Costa,Aline Corado Gomes,Bryan Saunders,João Felipe Mota

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