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Nutritional factors are amongst the major determinants in the onset and development of obesity and metabolic complications. Nevertheless, the dietary determinants of metabolic health are not completely elucidated. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate nutritional and dietary factors that may contribute to metabolic heterogeneity in individuals with obesity or normal weight. A literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, and google scholar databases until August 2021, to locate studies that examined metabolic health and its association with intakes of specific foods or food groups, nutrient intakes or status, as well as adherence to certain dietary patterns. Two researchers had independently screened titles and abstracts, examined full-text studies, conducted data extraction, and evaluated their quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-seven studies, with a total of 39518 subjects, were included. Of these studies, 11 articles evaluated the association between different dietary patterns and metabolic phenotypes, while 15 had investigated the association of single food/nutrients intakes or nutrient status with metabolic phenotype, and one paper evaluated the association of dietary inflammatory index with metabolic health. The findings of these studies propose that healthy dietary patterns such as the Mediterranean pattern, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, and population-derived patterns (such as the "Healthy" and "Fruit and vegetable" patterns) were associated with higher odds of the metabolically healthy phenotype. Higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, dairy products, coffee/tea, vitamin D, magnesium, and flavonoids, were suggested to lower the risk of developing metabolically unhealthy phenotype, while, higher consumption of saturated fat, carbohydrate and sugar-sweetened beverages, fast foods, organ meats, and a pro-inflammatory diet increased the risk. : Results from published studies, which were mostly cross-sectional, suggest that higher adherence to unhealthier dietary patterns, characterized by the consumption of refined and processed foods, was associated with a lower likelihood of having a healthy metabolic phenotype, while the opposite was observed for healthier dietary patterns. Findings may be used in developing nutritional strategies aimed at improving metabolic health in the population.
Behnaz Abiri,Majid Valizadeh,Lara Nasreddine,Farhad Hosseinpanah