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Given that only a subset of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) benefit from immune checkpoint therapy, efforts are ongoing to identify markers that predict immunotherapeutic response. Increasing evidence suggests that microbes influence the efficacy of cancer therapies. Fusobacterium nucleatum induces different immune responses in CRC with different microsatellite-instability (MSI) statuses. Here, we investigated the effect of F. nucleatum on anti-PD-L1 therapy in CRC. We found that high F. nucleatum levels correlate with improved therapeutic responses to PD-1 blockade in patients with CRC. Additionally, F. nucleatum enhanced the antitumor effects of PD-L1 blockade on CRC in mice and prolonged survival. Combining F. nucleatum supplementation with immunotherapy rescued the therapeutic effects of PD-L1 blockade. Furthermore, F. nucleatum induced PD-L1 expression by activating STING signaling and increased the accumulation of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)+ CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) during treatment with PD-L1 blockade, thereby augmenting tumor sensitivity to PD-L1 blockade. Finally, patient-derived organoid models demonstrated that increased F. nucleatum levels correlated with an improved therapeutic response to PD-L1 blockade. These findings suggest that F. nucleatum may modulate immune checkpoint therapy for CRC.
Yaohui Gao,Dexi Bi,Ruting Xie
Qing Wei,Huanlong Qin
Yaohui Gao,Dexi Bi,Ruting Xie,Man Li,Jing Guo,Hu Liu,Xianling Guo,Juemin Fang,Tingting Ding,Huiyuan Zhu,Yuan Cao,Meichun Xing,Jiayi Zheng,Qing Xu,Qian Xu,Qing Wei,Huanlong Qin