• 评估菌群与人类疾病关联的证据,包含从相关性到因果分子机制的5个层级;
  • 第1层是微生物与疾病表型的相关性研究,第2~5层可揭示因果性,分别是无菌动物以及抗生素治疗的人/动物呈现的表型变化(第2层),粪菌移植(FMT)转移宿主表型(第3层),鉴定产生表型的菌株(第4层)和微生物分子(第5层);
  • 以代谢疾病和高血压、感染、神经系统疾病为例,探讨了不同层级的证据和研究;
  • FMT和基于菌群代谢产物等的疗法有望用于疾病治疗。
大量研究探索了微生物组与人类疾病之间的关系,但不同的研究提供的证据角度和深度是有差异的。Nature Chemical Biology发表的这篇综述提出,可以从5个层级(从观察相关性到挖掘因果分子机制)对研究证据进行评估,并在这一框架下回顾了多种人类疾病的菌群研究进展,探讨了相关发现的临床转化潜力,值得专业人士参考。

Chains of evidence from correlations to causal molecules in microbiome-linked diseases



2021-09-22, Review

Abstract & Authors:展开

Human-associated microorganisms play a vital role in human health, and microbial imbalance has been linked to a wide range of disease states. In this Review, we explore recent efforts to progress from correlative studies that identify microorganisms associated with human disease to experiments that establish causal relationships between microbial products and host phenotypes. We propose that successful efforts to uncover phenotypes often follow a chain of evidence that proceeds from (1) association studies; to (2) observations in germ-free animals and antibiotic-treated animals and humans; to (3) fecal microbiota transplants (FMTs); to (4) identification of strains; and then (5) molecules that elicit a phenotype. Using this experimental ‘funnel’ as our guide, we explore how the microbiota contributes to metabolic disorders and hypertension, infections, and neurological conditions. We discuss the potential to use FMTs and microbiota-inspired therapies to treat human disease as well as the limitations of these approaches.

First Authors:
Snehal N Chaudhari

Correspondence Authors:
Snehal N Chaudhari,A Sloan Devlin

All Authors:
Snehal N Chaudhari,Megan D McCurry,A Sloan Devlin