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Context: Current dietary guidelines for cardiovascular disease risk management recommend restricting intake of saturated fatty acids (SFAs). However, the optimal macronutrient profile, in the context of a low-SFA diet, remains controversial. The blood-pressure effect of replacing SFAs in diets with monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) compared with carbohydrate has not been quantified to date.
Objective: To synthesize the evidence for the effect of substituting a high-carbohydrate (high-CHO) diet for a high-monounsaturated fatty acid (high-MUFA) diet on blood pressure, a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials in a population without health restrictions was conducted.
Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials were searched through June 7, 2017. Randomized controlled trials of > 3 weeks duration that assessed the effect of high-MUFA diets in isocaloric substitution for high-CHO diets on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were included.
Data Extraction: Data were pooled using the generic-inverse variance method with random effects models and expressed as mean differences (MDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran Q statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. The quality of the evidence was assessed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system.
Results: Fourteen trials (n = 980 participants) were included in the analysis. Comparatively, the high-MUFA diets in isocaloric substitution for high-CHO diets did not demonstrate a greater reduction in blood pressure (SBP: MD, -0.08 mmHg [95%CI, -1.01 to 0.84], P = 0.86; DBP: MD = 0.01 mmHg [95%CI, -0.73 to 0.75], P = 0.98). The overall quality of the evidence was assessed as moderate.
Conclusions: In the context of low SFAs, high-MUFA diets in isocaloric substitution for high-CHO diets did not affect blood pressure in individuals with and without hypertension. Large-scale trials achieving higher MUFA targets are required to support these findings.
ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02626325.
Elena Jovanovski,Any de Castro Ruiz Marques,Dandan Li
Elena Jovanovski,Any de Castro Ruiz Marques,Dandan Li,Hoang V T Ho,Sonia Blanco Mejia,John L Sievenpiper,Andreea Zurbau,Allison Komishon,Lea Duvnjak,Roberto B Bazotte,Vladimir Vuksan