急性感染性腹泻儿童的肠道菌群随康复而恢复

选取10名因轮状病毒感染而发生急性感染性腹泻的儿童以及6名健康儿童(3-4岁);
患儿在实验的前5天服用鲍氏酵母菌CNCM I-745,在服用益生菌后的第0、3、5、10、30天收集粪便样本;
在干预后3天之后,所有患儿腹泻停止;
在干预的前5天中患儿的肠道菌群α多样性降低,在第10天及第30天时α多样性升高;
在实验开始的前几天中,健康儿童与患儿的肠道菌群有显著差异,在之后的时间内差异消失。
延伸阅读

Time series analysis of the microbiota of children suffering from acute infectious diarrhea and their recovery after treatment

急性感染性腹泻患儿治疗后的肠道菌群时间变化分析

2018-06-12, Article, 10.3389/fmicb.2018.01230more

Abstract:
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an aggressive upper gastrointestinal cancer and effective treatments are limited. Previous studies reported that natural killer (NK) cells expanded by coculturing with K562-mb15-41BBL feeder cells, a genetically modified K562 leukemia cell line that expresses membrane-bound interleukin (IL)-15 and 41BBL ligand, were highly proliferative and highly cytotoxic. Here, we investigated the potential of expanded NK cells for ESCC treatment. We analyzed both genetic and surface expression levels of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) in ESCC using publicly available microarray data sets and ESCC cell lines. The cytotoxicity of resting and of IL-2-activated NK cells against ESCC cell lines was compared with that of expanded NK cells. We then also investigated the effect of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers, GSK3β inhibitor and epidermal growth factor, on NKG2DLs expressions. As a result, MICA and MICB were significantly overexpressed in ESCC compared with adjacent normal tissues and surface NKG2DLs were expressed in ESCC cell lines. Expanded NK cells were much potent than IL-2-activated and resting NK cells against ESCC cell lines. Blocking of NKG2D with anti-NKG2D monoclonal antibody dampened expanded NK cell cytotoxicity, suggesting that the NKG2DLs-NKG2D interaction is crucial for NK cells to eliminate ESCC cells. EMT inducers concurrently induced EMT and NKG2DLs expression in ESCC cell lines rendering transitioned cells more sensitive to expanded NK cells. In conclusion, expanded NK cells were highly cytotoxic against NKG2DLs-expressing ESCC cells, particularly the EMT phenotype. These results provide a strong rationale for clinical use of these NK cells in ESCC patients.

First Authors:
Ener C. Dinleyici,Daniel Martínez-Martínez

Correspondence Authors:
Andrés Moya